Introduction
Unit (Symbol) 
Description 
Unit Abrev. 
Ampere (I) 
The constant current which when flowing through two infinitely long parallel wires 1 m
apart would produce in vacua a force of 2 x 10^{ 7} N/m on each conductor 
A 
Coulomb (Q) 
The quantity of electricity passing a given point when a current
of 1 ampere flows for 1 second 
C 
Volt (E,V) 
The electromotive force or potential difference across a
resistor which produces heat at the rate of 1 newton.m (joule)/second, =1 watt,
when a constant current of 1 Ampere is flowing. 
V 
Ohm (R) 
Is the electrical resistance of a conductor in which a constant
current of 1 ampere flows under a constant voltage of 1 volt. ( R = V /I ) 
Ω 
(ρ) 
Resistivity . The resistance of a conductor ( R ) is
proportional to the length ( l ) / Area( A ) and the proportionality constant is the resistivity
ρ. i.e R = ρ. l / A. 
Ω.m 
Siemen (G) 
The unit of conductance G = The Siemen . The Sieman is the conductance between
two points on a conductor when a constant potential difference of 1 volt produces a currant of 1 amperere .
(G = I / V ) 
S 
(σ) 
Conductivity . The conductivity of a conductor ( G ) is
proportional to the area / length and the proportionality constant is the conductivity
σ. i.e G = σ. l / A. Conductivity is the inverse of resistivity 
S.m 
Henry (L) 
The inductance in which 1 volt is produced by a current changing
at the rate of one ampere per second 
H 
Farad (C) 
The capacitance in which 1 coulomb is stored for a potential difference of 1 volt 
F 
Resistivity (ρ) 
The unit of static resistivity. The resistance of a conductor (Ω) is
proportional to the length ( l ) / Area( A ) and the proportionality constant is the resistivity
ρ. i.e R = ρ. l / A. Resistivity is the inverse of
conductance σ 
S 
Joule (W) 
The unit of work energy, and quantity of heat.
The work done when the point of application of a force of 1 newton is displaced
through a distance of 1 m. in the direction of the force 
J 
Watt (P) 
The unit of power . One watt = The work of one joule being completed per second . (P = W/t) 
W 
Weber (Φ) 
The unit of magnetic flux. The magnetic flux linking a circuit of one turn produces in it an electromotive force of 1 volt as it is reduced to zero at a uniform rate in 1 second 
Wb 
Tesla (B) 
The unit of magnetic flux density. The tesla is equal to 1 weber per square metre of circuit area 
T 
Definitions in a little more detail
Time...(t) (Seconds).... Length...(l) (metres).... Mass..(m) (kilograms).... Velocity ..(v) (m/s)....
Force...(F) .. A force of one newton is required to cause a mass of 1 kilgram
to accelerate at a rate of 1 metre per second per second.
Energy....(W).. One joule is the energy required (the work done) in moving a
object 1 meter against a resisting force of 1 newton. Potential energy
(mechanical) is the capacity of a body to do work because of its position in
a force field. Kinetic energy is the energy possessed by a body due to its
motion (KE= m.v^{2} /2). i.e a mass of 1 kg moving with a velocity of 1 m/s has a kinetic energy of 1/2 joule.
Using electrical units a charge of 1 coulomb gains an energy of 1 joule in moving through a potential difference of
1 Volt.
Power..(P).. One watt is the power required to do the work of 1 joule in one second.
Instantaneous power P = dW/dt . In electrical units a flow of charge of couloumb/sec ( = a current of 1 Ampere) flowing against a
potential difference of 1 volt requires a power of 1 watt.
Charge..(Q)..(SI derived unit ) A charge is the electrostatic force resulting from presence of electrons. This is a quantized variable because the smallest
charge is that resulting from 1 electron (1,602.10^{19} Coulomb). The Coulomb is the charge on 6,24.10^{18} electrons or as a charge
experiencing a force of 1 Newton in a electric field of 1 Volt per metre , or as the charge transferred in 1 second at a current
of 1 Ampere. (Q = I.t )
Current ...(i)..(SI base unit )The current through an area A is defined by the electric charge
passing through A per unit of time. An Ampere is the charge flow of 1 coulomb per second. In general the charges may be positive and negative
each moving moving through the area in opposite directions. The current is the net
rate of flow of positive charges, a scalar quantity. For example if positive charges are
moving to the right and negative charges are moving to the left then the net effect is the sum of
the rate of positive charges and the rate of negative charge, moving to the right..
Potential Difference (PD)..(V)..(SI derived unit ) .The energy transfer of a flow of electric charge is determined
by the potential difference of voltage through which the charge moves. A charge of
1 coulomb acquires or delivers an energy of 1 joule in moving through a potential difference
of 1 volt.
Electro Motive Force (EMF)..(V)..(SI derived unit ) .The force which produce
an electric current. The potential difference
in Volts developed by a generator, battery etc.
An e.m.f can be produced by
Chemical action in batteries or cells
Mechanical energy using magnetic induction / piezoelectric crystals .
Thermal energy using thermocouples.
Solar energy using solar cells.
Electric Field Strength ..(Ε)..The field is a convenient concept in calculating electric and magnetic
forces. Around a charge we imagining a region of influence called an "
electic field". The electric field Ε is a vector
defined by the magnitude and direction of the force (F) on a unit positive charge
in the field In vector notation the defining equation is F = Q .Ε .
The units of electric field strength are newtons per coulomb .
[force/charge = force.distance /charge.distance = energy /charge.distance =
voltage /distance ]
The field strength in newtons per coulomb is equal and opposite to the voltage
gradient.
Magnetic Flux Density..(B)...(SI derived unit ). Around a moving charge or an electric current there is a region of influence
called a "magnetic field". The magnetic field associated with a bar magnet results from spinning
electrons in the atoms of iron. The intensity of the magnetic field is measured by the magnetic flux
density B is measured in teslas(T). It is defined by the magnitude and direction of the force
exerted on a charge (Q) moving in a field with a velocity (v) . In vector notation
That is a force of 1 newton is experienced by a charge of 1 coulomb moving with a velocity of 1 m/s normal
to a magnetic flux density of 1 tesla . Also a force of 1 newton is
experienced by a conductor, normal to the magnetic field, carrying a current
of 1 ampere per metre length of conductor
Magnetic Flux ..Φ.. Historically ,magnetic fields have been described in terms of
lines of force of flux. The magnetic flux Φ measured in Webers (Wb) are obtained by integrating
magnetic flux density over an area.
